A glimpse of Canadian Statistics
Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US
9,976,140 sq km
9,220,970 sq km
755,170 sq km
Area comparative: slightly larger than US
Land boundaries:
8,893 km
border countries:
US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Coastline: 243,791 km
Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point:
Mount Logan 5,950 m
Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas
Land use:
arable land:
permanent crops:
permanent pastures:
forests and woodland:
38% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: 7,100 sq km (1993 est.)
Geography note: second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US/Canada border
Population: 30,995,398 approx.
Age structure:
0-14 years:
20% (male 3,106,331; female 2,961,328)
15-64 years:
68% (male 10,457,686; female 10,328,953)
65 years and over:
12% (male 1,619,704; female 2,201,396)
Population growth rate: 1.09% (1998 est.)
Birth rate: 12.12 births/1,000 population
Death rate: 7.25 deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate: 6.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population
Sex ratio:
at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years:
1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over:
0.74 male(s)/female (1998 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 5.59 deaths/1,000 live births (1998 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
79.16 years
75.86 years
82.63 years (1998 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.65 children born/woman (1998 est.)
Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other European 20%, Amerindian 1.5%, other, mostly Asian 11.5%
Religions: Roman Catholic 45%, United Church 12%, Anglican 8%, other 35%
Languages: English (official), French (official)
age 15 and over can read and write
total population:
National capital: Ottawa
Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
the Northwest Territories will be split in two as of April 1999; the eastern section, which will be self-governing, will be renamed Nunavut, the west is as yet unnamed
Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)
National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the machinery of the government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs
Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (a body whose members are appointed to serve until reaching 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (301 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
House of Commons?last held 2 June 1997 (next to be held by NA June 2002)
election results:
percent of votes by party?Liberal Party 38%, Reform Party 19%, Tories 19%, Bloc Quebecois 11%, New Democratic Party 11%, other 2%; seats by party - Liberal Party 155, Reform Party 60, Bloc Quebecois 44, New Democratic Party 21, Progressive Conservative Party 20, independents 1
Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general
Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party [Jean CHRETIEN]; Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Reform Party [Preston MANNING]; New Democratic Party [Alexa MCDONOUGH]; Progressive Conservative Party [Jean CHAREST]
International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE (observer), CP, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIPONUH, MTCR, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Flag description: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white band
Economy overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Canada started the 1990s in recession, and real rates of growth have averaged only 1.1% so far this decade. Because of slower growth, Canada still faces high unemployment?especially in Quebec and the Maritime Provinces?and a large public sector debt. With its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, however, Canada will enjoy better economic prospects in the future. The continuing constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas is raising the possibility of a split in the federation, making foreign investors somewhat edgy.
GDP: purchasing power parity $700 billion
GDP real growth rate: 3.5%
GDP per capita: purchasing power parity $21,700
GDP composition by sector:
66% (1997)
Inflation rate consumer price index: 1.8%
Labor force:
15.3 million
by occupation:
services 75%, manufacturing 16%, agriculture 3%, construction 5%, other 1%
Unemployment rate: 8.6%
$106.5 billion
$117.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7 billion
Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish products, petroleum and natural gas
Industrial production growth rate: 1.7%
Agriculture products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; commercial fisheries provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is exported
total value:
$208.6 billion
newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas, aluminum, motor vehicles and parts; telecommunications equipment
US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China
total value:
$194.4 billion
crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer goods, computers; telecommunications equipment and parts
US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea
Debt external: $253 billion
Economic aid:
ODA, $1.6 billion
ODA and OOF commitments, $10.1 billion
Currency: 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1is1.4408 (January 1998), 1.3846 (1997), 1.3635 (1996), 1.37241 (1995), 1.3656 (1994), 1.2901
Fiscal year: 1 April 31 March
Telephones: 15.3 million (1990)
Telephone system: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations?5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 900, FM 29, shortwave 0
Television broadcast stations: 70 (repeaters 1,400) (1991)
Televisions: 11.53 million (1983 est.)
72,963 km; note?there are two major transcontinental freight railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November 1995) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by government-operated firm VIA, which has no trackage of its own
standard gauge:
72,963 km 1.435-m gauge (183 km electrified)
1.021 million km
358,371 km (including 19,000 km of expressways)
662,629 km (1995 est.)
Waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway
Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km
Ports and harbors: Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), Saint John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney, Trois-Rivieres, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor
Merchant marine:
57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 638,267 GRT/902,923 DWT
ships by type:
bulk 10, cargo 9, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 16, passenger 2, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1
does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes (1997 est.)
Airports: 1,393 (1997 est.)
Airports with paved runways:
over 3,047 m:
2,438 to 3,047 m:
1,524 to 2,437 m:
914 to 1,523 m:
under 914 m:
93 (1997 est.)
Airports with unpaved runways:
1,524 to 2,437 m:
914 to 1,523 m:
under 914 m:
455 (1997 est.)
Heliports: 17 (1997 est.)
Military branches: Canadian Armed Forces (includes Land Forces Command or LC, Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC, Communications Command or CC, Training Command or TC), Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)
Military manpower military age: 17 years of age
Military manpower availability:
males age 15-49:
8,200,963 (1998 est.)
Military manpower fit for military service:
7,033,996 (1998 est.)
Military manpower reaching military age annually:
209,679 (1998 est.)
Military expenditures dollar figure: $7.1 billion (FY97/98)
Military expenditures percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY97/98)